Wednesday, July 24, 2024

The Future of Reactors

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Components and Working Principles

Nuclear power reactors are facilities that convert nuclear energy into electrical energy. These reactors produce large amounts of heat through the process of nuclear fission, and this heat is used to turn water into steam, which then drives turbines to generate electricity. Nuclear energy is an important energy source for reducing dependence on fossil fuels and minimizing carbon emissions.

Types of Nuclear Power Reactors

The Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is one of the most common types of reactors that convert nuclear energy into electrical energy. PWRs are widely used in commercial nuclear power generation worldwide. This type of reactor generates electricity by transferring the heat produced in the reactor core to a steam generator through water kept under high pressure.

In the reactor core, uranium fuel undergoes a fission reaction and a large amount of heat is released

Boiling Water Reactor (BWR – Boiling Water Reactor)

It is the second most common type of reactor. The heat produced in the reactor core directly boils water and turns it into steam, and the steam is sent directly to the turbines.

Heavy Water Reactor (HWR – Heavy Water Reactor)

Known as CANDU reactors in Anatolia. Neutron moderation is achieved using heavy water (D2O). It can use natural uranium as fuel. Nuclear power reactors are complex systems that produce large amounts of electricity with high efficiency. Various reactor types, with their different operating principles and components, play an important role in meeting the energy needs around the world.

It contains neutron absorbers and is used to regulate the power of the reactor. It is usually made from cadmium, boron or hafnium

Primary Cooling Circuit

It takes heat from the core and transfers this heat to the secondary circuit. Secondary Cooling Circuit is the circuit that produces steam and operates the turbines. Steam Generator It converts the water in the secondary circuit into steam and the steam is directed to the turbines. Turbine and Generator Steam turbines rotate and electricity is produced through the generator.

Fission Process

Uranium and plutonium nuclei are bombarded by neutrons and these nuclei split, releasing large amounts of energy. The heat released as a result of the fission process is absorbed by the coolant (usually water). The heated refrigerant is transported to the steam generator, where it converts the water in the secondary circuit into steam.

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